Studies have shown that, when material is learned under the influence of a drug or alcoholfor example, it is subsequently recalled better when in the same drug state than when sober. Thus, our everyday communication consists not just of words and their meanings, but also of what is left out and mutually understood e. Because of its focus on the retrieval environment or state, encoding specificity takes into account context cuesand it also has some advantages over the two-stage theory as it accounts for the fact that, in practice, recognition is not actually always superior to recall. Similarly, individuals tend to retrieve information more easily when it has the same emotional content as their current emotional state, and when the emotional state at the time of retrieval is similar to the emotional state at the time of encoding. However, while some super-recognisers were very good at matching faces in the first task, the same individuals were not necessarily so good at remembering multiple faces in the second test. In a second test, participants viewed 20 images of faces that were extracted from good quality CCTV footage.
Typically, recall is better when the environments are similar in both the learning encoding and recall phases, suggesting that context cues are important.
Superior Face Recognition: A Very Special Super Power
During recall, the brain "replays" a pattern of neural activity that was originally generated in response to a particular event, echoing the brain 's perception of the real event. However, the use of schemata may also lead to memory errors as assumed or expected associated events are added that did not actually occur. Recognition requires only a simple familiarity decisionwhereas a full recall of an item from memory requires a two-stage process indeed, this is often referred to as the two-stage theory of memory in which the search and retrieval of candidate items from memory is followed by a familiarity decision where the correct information is chosen from the candidates retrieved. Although only a handful of cases of hyperthymesia have ever been definitively confirmed, some of these cases are quite startling, such as a California woman who could recall every day in complete detail from the age of 14 onwards, a young English girl with an IQ of who had a perfect photographic memory spanning almost 18 years, and a Russian man known simply as "S. These findings challenge existing conclusions, suggesting that it is the centre of the face, rather than the eye region, that is optimal for facial identity recognition. Among many other experiments in this area see the side panel on the Psychogenic Amnesia page, for exampleshe showed how the precise wording of a question about memories e.